Incidence of breast cancer
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women with incidence of 32 % of all female cancers in Egypt.
Anatomy of breast cancer
- The female breast is made up of Lobules and Ducts (as shown in the picture)
- The lobules produce the milk which passes through the ducts to the nipple.
Site of origin of breast cancer
- Ducts :Invasive ductal carcinoma or IDC
- Lobules : Invasive lobular carcinoma or ILC
Risk factors of breast cancer
- Breast cancer risk increases with age
- Family history of breast cancer as about 5% is hereditary.
- Inherited mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2
- Personal history of breast cancer
- Previous exposure to radiation as if the patient was treated from any other disease and received radiotherapy to chest as in lymphoma early in her life
- Hormonal treatment as post-menopausal hormonal treatment
- Early menstruation
- Delayed first baby
- No breast feeding
- Increase body weight, especially after menopause
Screening of breast cancer
- Yearly Mammography is recommended for every woman above the age of 45 for early detection of breast cancer and so for better prognosis as curability in early stages is about 98%.
- Monthly self-examination of the breast at the last day of menstruation can help in early detection of any suspicious breast mass.
Symptoms and Signs (see picture)
- Breast mass or axillary (armpit) mass
- Increase of the size of the breast
- Skin changes
- Nipple retraction or change direction
Mammography can differentiate between benign and suspicious breast masses.
Histological confirmation of any suspicious breast mass is mandatory for proper treatment.
Staging of Breast cancer
There are five stages of breast cancer with better prognosis with lower stages
Molecular subtypes of breast cancer
There are four molecular subtypes of breast cancer categorized according to hormonal receptor status, HER2neu amplification and EGFR nd CK5/6 status.
Treatment of breast cancer
Treatment of breast cancer can be summarized as shown in the diagram.